Riferimenti e citazioni forniti da Hannah Dahlen, Professoressa di Ostetricia alla Western Sydney University.

  • Childbirth and consequent atopic disease: Emerging evidence on epigenetic effects based on the hygiene and EPIIC hypotheses, “BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth”, Vol. 16(1), p. 4.

  • Dahlen, H. (2015), Why being born is good for you, “The Practising Midwife”, Vol. 18(4), pp. 10-13.

  • Dahlen, H. (2015), Can love and science co-exist in this debate?, “Internation Journal of Birth and Parent Education”, Vol. 2(2), pp. 40-41.

  • Dahlen, H.G., Downe, S., Powell Kennedy, H., Foureur, M. (2014), Is society being reshaped on a microbiological and epigenetic level by the way women give birth?, “Midwifery”, Vol. 30(12), pp. 1149-1151.

Riferimenti e citazioni forniti da Jacquelyn Y. Taylor, Professoressa associata, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Facoltà di Infermieristica Scholar Alumnia, Università di Yale.

  • First trimester vitamin D status and placental epigenomics in preeclampsia among northern plains primiparas, “Life Sciences”, Vol. 129, pp. 10-15; doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.07.012 [PMID: 25050465].

  • Should prophylactic antibiotics be routinely given to a mother before a cesarean birth?, “MCN American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing”, Vol. 38(5), pp. 266-267; doi: 10.1097/ NMC.0b013e31829b3d68 [PMID: 23958615].

  • An overview of epigenetics in nursing, “Nursing Clinics of North America”, Vol. 48, pp. 649-659; PMCID: PMC3873714.

  • Childbirth and consequent atopic disease: Emerging evidence on epigenetic effects based on the hygiene and EPIIC hypotheses, “BioMed Research International”, Vol. 16(1), p. 4.

  • The EPIIC hypothesis: Intrapartum effects on the neonatal epigenome and consequent health outcomes, “Medical Hypotheses” Vol. 80(5), pp. 656-662; doi:10.1016/j. mehy.2013.01.017 [PMID: 23414680].

  • Taylor, J.Y., Wright, M., Crusto, C., Sun, Y.V. (2016), The intergenerational impact of genetic and psychological factors on blood pressure study (InterGEN): design and methods for complex DNA Analysis, “Biological Research for Nursing”.

  • Antenatal microbiome: potential contributor to fetal programming and establishment of the microbiome in offspring, “Nursing Research”, Vol. 64(4), pp. 306-319; doi: 10.1097/ NNR.0000000000000101 [PMID: 26035769].

Riferimenti e citazioni forniti dalla professoressa Anita Kzyrskyj, Università di Alberta, Dipartimento di Pediatria.

  • Azad, M.B., Konya, T., Persaud, R.R., Guttman, D.S., Chari, R.S., Field, C.J., Sears, M.R., Mandhane, P.J., Turvey, S.E., Subbarao, P., Becker, A.B., Scott, J.A., Kozyrskyj, A.L. and the CHILD Study investigators (2015), Impact of maternal intrapartum antibiotics, method of birth and breastfeeding on gut microbiota during the first year of life: a prospective cohort study, “BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology”, Sep 28 [Epub ahead of print] DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.13601.

  • Azad, M.B., Konya, T., Guttman, D.S., Field, C.J., Sears, M.R., HayGlass, K.T., Mandhane, P.J., Turvey, S.E., Subbarao, P., Becker, A.B., Scott, J.A., Kozyrskyj A.L. and the CHILD Study investigators (2015), Infant gut microbiota and food sensitization: associations in the first year of life, “Clinical and Experimental Allergy”, Vol. 45, pp. 632-643.

  • Bridgman, S.L., Konya, T., Azad, M.B., Sears, M.R., Becker, A.B., Turvey, S.E., Mandhane, P.J., Subbarao, P. and the CHILD Study investigators, Scott, J.A., Field, C.J., Kozyrskyj, A.L. (2016), Infant gut immunity: a preliminary study of IgA associations with breastfeeding, “Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease”, Vol. 7(1), pp. 103-107.

  • Koleva, P.T., Bridgman, S.L., Kozyrskyj, A.L. (April 2015), The infant gut microbiome: evidence for obesity risk and dietary intervention, “Nutrients”, Vol. 7(4), pp. 2237-60.

  • Kozyrskyj, A.L., Kalu, R., Koleva, P.T., Bridgman, S.L. (June 2015), Fetal programming of overweight through the microbiome: boys are disproportionately affected, “Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease”, Vol. 29, pp. 1-10.

  • Mastromarino, P., Capobianco, D., Miccheli, A., Praticò, G., Campagna, G., Laforgia, N., Capursi, T., Baldassarre, M.E. (2015), Administration of a multistrain probiotic product (VSL#3) to women in the perinatal period differentially affects breast milk beneficial microbiota in relation to mode of delivery, “Pharmacological Research”, pp. 95-96, pp. 63-70.

Riferimenti e citazioni forniti da Stefan Elbe, Professore di Relazioni Internazionali, Università del Sussex, Direttore del Centre for Global Health Policy.

  • Elbe, Stefan (2010), Security and global health: Toward the medicalization of insecurity (Polity Press, Australia)

Riferimenti e citazioni fornite da Neena Modi, Professore di Medicina Neonatale, Imperial College di Londra.

  • Darmasseelane, K., Hyde, M.J., Santhakumaran, S., Gale, C., Modi, N. (2014), Mode of delivery and offspring body mass index, overweight and obesity in adult life: a systematic review and meta-analysis, “PLoS One”, Vol. 9(2):e87896 PMID: 24586295.

  • Svensson, E., Hyde, M.J., Modi, N., Ehrenstein, V. (March 2013), Caesarean section and body mass index among Danish adult men, “Obesity” (Silver Spring), Vol. 21(3), pp. 429-33 PMID: 23408746.

  • Riferimenti e citazioni fornite da Aleeca Bell, Assistente Universitario, Dipartimento di Scienza della Salute Femminile, Famigliare e Infantile, University of Illinois at Chicago.

  • Bell, A.F., Carter, C.S., Steer C.D., Golding J., Davis J.M., Steffen A.D., et al. (2015), Interaction between oxytocin receptor DNA methylation and genotype is associated with risk of postpartum depression in women without depression in pregnancy, “Frontiers in Genetics”, Vol. 6, p. 243.

  • Bell, A.F., Carter C.S., Davis, J.M., Golding, J., Adejumo, O., Pyra, M. et al. (2015), Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: A prospective birth cohort study, “Archives of Women’s Mental Health”, Jul 23.

  • Bell, A.F., Erickson, E.N., and Carter, C.S. (2014), Beyond labor: The role of natural and synthetic oxytocin in the transition to motherhood

Altre letture e risorse multimediali

I libri e gli articoli che seguono sono stati suggeriti come letture aggiuntive da Rodney Dietert, Professore di Immunotossicologia alla Cornell University, autore di The Human Superorganism. Gran parte degli articoli sul web sono disponibili in forma completa e gratuita, è sufficiente scaricarli.


  • Blaser, M.J., Che fine hanno fatto i nostri microbi? Come l’uso di antibiotici alimenta le malattie della nostra epoca, 2017, Aboca Edizioni

  • Dietert, R.R., The Human Superorganism: How the microbiome is revolutionizing the pursuit of a healthy life Dutton, an imprint of Penguin Random House, New York, 2016.

  • Dietert, R.R. and Dietert J., Strategies for Protecting Your Child’s Immune System: Tools for parents and parents-to-be, World Scientific Publishing Company, Singapore, 2010.

Articoli su riviste e web

  • Almgren, M., Schlinzig, T., Gomez-Cabrero, D., Gunnar, A., Sundin, M., Johansson, S., Norman, M., Ekström, T.J. (2014), Cesarean delivery and hematopoietic stem cell epigenetics in the newborn infant: implications for future health?, “American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology”, Vol. 21(5), pp. 502.e1-508.e80.

  • Azad, M.B., Kozyrskyj, A.L. (2012), Perinatal programming of asthma: the role of gut microbiota, “Clinical and Developmental Immunology”; 932072.

  • Azad, M.B., Konya, T., Maughan, H., Guttman, D.S., Field, C.J., Chari, R.S., Sears, M.R., Becker, A.B., Scott, J.A., Kozyrskyj, A.L. and CHILD Study investigators (2013), Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months, “Canadian Medical Association Journal”, Vol. 185(5), pp. 385-94.

  • Blaser, M.J. (2006), Who are we? Indigenous microbes and the ecology of human diseases, “The European Molecular Biology Organization Reports”, Vol, 7(10), pp. 956-60.

  • The global economic burden of noncommunicable diseases, Geneva: World Economic Forum.

  • Borre, Y.E., Moloney, R.D., Clarke, G., Dinan, T.G., Cryan, J.F. (2014), , “Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 817, pp. 373-403.

  • Decker, E., Hornef, M., Stockinger, S. (2011), Cesarean delivery is associated with celiac disease but not inflammatory bowel disease in children, “Gut Microbes”, Vol. 2(2), pp. 91-8.

  • Dietert, R.R. (2014), Developmental immunotoxicity, perinatal programming, and noncommunicable diseases: focus on human studies, “Advances in Medicine”, Vol. 2014, Article ID 867805.

  • Dietert, R.R., (April 22, 2014), Early immune education, “Eureka Science”, Charles River Laboratories Scientific Blog Articles.

  • Dietert, R.R., (2013), Natural childbirth and breastfeeding as preventive measures of immune-microbiome dysbiosis and misregulated inflammation

  • Dietert, R.R. and Dietert, J.M. (2012), The completed self: an immunological view of the human-microbiome superorganism and risk of chronic diseases, “Entropy”, Vol.14, pp. 2036-65.

  • Dietert, R.R., DeWitt, J.C., Germolec, D.R., Zelikoff, J.T. (2010), Breaking patterns of environmentally influenced disease for health risk reduction: immune perspectives, “Environmental Health Perspectives”, Vol.118(8), pp. 1091-1099.

  • Dominguez-Bello, M.G., Costello, E.K., Contreras, M., Magris, M., Hidalgo, G., Fierer, N., Knight, R. (2010), Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns, “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A.”, Vol. 107(26), pp. 11971-5.

  • Guinane, C.M., Cotter, P.D. (2013), Role of the gut microbiota in health and chronic gastrointestinal disease: understanding a hidden metabolic organ, “Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology”, Vol. 6(4), pp. 295-308.

  • Huang, L., Chen, Q., Zhao, Y., Wang, W., Fang, F., Bao, Y. (2014), Is elective cesarean section associated with a higher risk of asthma? A meta-analysis, “Journal of Asthma”, Vol. 2014 Aug 27, pp. 1-10.

  • Human Microbiome Project Consortium (2012), Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome, “Nature”, Vol. 486(7402), pp. 207-14.

  • Jakobsson, H.E., Abrahamsson, T.R., Jenmalm, M.C., Harris, K., Quince, C., Jernberg, C., Bjo crobiota ̈rkstén, B., Engstrand, L., Andersson, A.F. (2014), Decreased gut midiversity, delayed bacteroidetes colonisation and reduced Th1 responses in infants delivered by caesarean section, “Gut”, Vol. 63(4), pp. 559-66.

  • Mårild, K., Stephansson, O., Montgomery, S., Murray, J.A., Ludvigsson, J.F. (2012), Pregnancy outcome and risk of celiac disease in offspring: a nationwide case-control study, “Gastroenterology”, Vol. 142(1), pp. 39-45; e3.

  • Markle, J.G., Frank, D.N., Adeli, K., von Bergen, M., Danska, J.S. (2014), Microbiome manipulation modifies sex-specific risk for autoimmunity, “Gut Microbes”, Vol. 5(4), pp. 485-93.

  • Mejía-León, M.E., Petrosino, J.F., Ajami, N.J., Domínguez-Bello, M.G., de la Barca, A.M. (2014), Fecal microbiota imbalance in mexican children with type 1 diabetes, “Scientific Reports”, Vol. 4:3814.

  • Vajro, P., Paolella, G., Fasano, A. (2013), Microbiota and gut-liver axis: their influences on obesity and obesity-related liver disease, “Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition”, Vol. 56(5), pp. 461-8.

  • Walker, W.A. (2013), Initial intestinal colonization in the human infant and immune homeostasis, “Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism”, Vol. 63(2), pp. 8-15

  • Weng, M., Walker, W.A. (2013), The role of gut microbiota in programming the immune phenotype, “The Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease”, Vol. 4(3), pp. 203-14.

Effetto microbioma
Effetto microbioma
Toni Harman, Alex Wakeford
Come la nascita influenza la salute futura.Il parto è un momento cruciale per la formazione del microbioma umano: come si forma e qual è la sua importanza per la salute del bambino? Che cos’è il microbioma umano? E perché è così importante? Il trasferimento al figlio dell’insieme dei microorganismi presenti sul e nel corpo della madre al momento della nascita sembra rivestire un ruolo fondamentale nella salute futura del bambino. Si tratta di un evento particolarmente delicato, che purtroppo è messo a rischio dalle moderne pratiche che circondano il parto. Come fare allora per preservare questo fondamentale processo?Effetto microbioma di Toni Harman e Alex Wakeford risponde proprio a questa domanda e spiega qual è la sua importanza per la salute del bambino. Conosci l’autore Toni Harman e Alex Wakeford, coppia professionale e nella vita, sono registi e produttori cinematografici. Il loro film-documentario, Microbirth (2014), è stato insignito del primo premio, il Grand Prix Award, al Life Sciences Film Festival di Praga.